## Protein Sparing Modified Fast Calculator

I put together the previous formulas into one single webpage, the Protein Sparing Modified Fast Calculator. I’ve put my own current numbers into the calculator. Just hit the “Calculate” button to see my numbers. Feel free to try it out with your own numbers and see if it helps you figure out any of this. I don’t see the numbers you enter nor are they stored in any database. All of the calculations are done on your phone web browser or Internet browser (Firefox and Chrome works but Internet Explorer doesn’t).

If you find any errors, please let me know. I tried it with my own numbers and they make sense but I didn’t have a woman’s secret numbers to check.

Here’s a decent introduction to the Protein Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF). I only take exception to one point which is the question of how long you can do a PSMF. They say you can’t do it for an extended period of time. If you continually re-calculate your numbers you should be able to fine tune for maintenance levels. This calculator makes that re-calculation relatively easy. Here’s the results I got for my numbers.

## Your Scale and Metabolism Numbers

Current Weight: 199.8 lbs
Goal Weight: 171.3 lbs
Lbs from Goal Weight at start: 28.5 lbs
Body Fat at start: 25.4%, 50.8 lbs
Lean Body Mass (LBM): 149.0 lbs
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): 1818.0 cal/day
Initial Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE): 2500 cal/day
Initial Maximum Fat Loss on Protein Sparing Modified Fast: 0.45 lbs of body fat per day

## Protein Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF) Dietary Macros (per day)

It is very important on the PSMF that you eat at least the macros listed here. If you go below these numbers you risk lowering your metabolism and you actually can’t lose body fat any faster. Attempting to be just above the numbers is OK.

Protein: 119.2 g (476.8 cals)
Carbs: 20 g (80 cals)
Fat: 40.9 g (367.7 cals)
Your total Dietary Calories are 924.4 cals for maximum fat loss.

If you consume 216 g (1943 calories) of fat you will stay at your current weight.At your goal weight you will be able to consume 119.2 grams of Protein, 20 grams of Carbs, and 176.3 grams of Fat.

## Can You Fast?

One important question to ask when considering extended fasting is whether or not you have sufficient body fat to fast.

You currently use 2500 cal/day. You have 1575 calories per day available from your body fat for maintenance. You have less calories available from body fat than your daily requirements and may not be able to fast. If you fast, your body may drop your base metabolism, energy expenditures or may consume protein stores. You will be -924 calories short per day

The thermic effect of food contributes somewhere from 5-20% of your current TDEE number so if you are fasting that can reduce your TDEE. Reducing your TDEE by 10% would result in you using 2250 calories per day. Calculating in a 10% Thermic Effect of food still leaves you in a caloric deficit during fasting. The Protein Sparing Modified fast solves this issue by providing the calories needed for the deficit.

## How Much Muscle Can You Gain?

The Maximum Lean Body Mass that you can carry on your frame is 186.5 lbs at your goal of: 15.0% Body Fat. That would be a weight of 214.5 lbs.

## Disclaimer

Use this information at your own risk and with the advice of your medical professional. We are not doctors nor do we pretend to be one on the Internet. We do not take responsibility for errors in these calculations. We do not guarantee that these numbers will work for people at the extremes of the ranges. If you discover an error in calculation, please let us know through email: keto at land-boards dot com.

# NO – Not Low Fat

What am I suggesting? Is it Low Fat? Nope. To review I am suggesting a diet of:

• Less than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day
• Adequate protein – for me 115 grams of Protein a day (KetoGains Protein Levels)
• Enough fat to maintain Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) levels (TDEE Calculator)
• Some of this fat comes from body fat
• The remainder of the fat comes from dietary fat

This may mean a very low level of dietary fat at the beginning of the way of eating. It will progress towards a proper level of fat to maintain the goal weight. But don’t fear – you will still have plenty of high quality fats to consume from your own body.

## The Goal?

There’s two complementary goals that are possible. Either we have the goal of a reaching a certain weight or of reaching a certain body fat percentage. These two numbers turn out to be directly related to each other. That’s because your weight is the sum of your Lean Body Mass (LBM) and your Fat Mass. If you hold your LBM constant and reduce your Fat Mass it will reduce your body weight by the same amount.

## An Example of the Goal

The math is pretty straightforward but an example could help.

Say you are a 200 lb male with 150 lbs of LBM. Your fat mass is 50 lbs. You have 25% body fat. If you want to go to 15% body fat that means you must lost 10% of your weight or 20 lbs. Your target weight at 15% body fat is 180 lbs.

# Simplified Steps

2. With a tape measure:
Height______________ in
Neck ________________ in
Waist ______________ in
Hips (if you ware a woman) _________________ in
3. Plug in your measurements from step 2 into USN BodyFat Calculator.
Lean Body Mass = ________________ %
Body Fat =_________________%
4. Calculate your max fat loss by multiplying your Body Fat from Step 3 by 31
Body Fat __________ lbs x 31 cals/lb = ____________ calories
5. Weight loss per day = number (step 4)  ______ / 3500 = _____
(This number should be a fraction around 0.5 for many people).
LBM = Weight (step 1) _________ minus Body Fat (step 3) _____ = ________ lbs
7. Calculate your TDEE = ___________  calories
8. Your calories from carbs should be less than 20 x 4 = 80 calories.
9. Calculate your protein needs from using one of the constants from KetoGains FAQ page Protein Needs section
0.69 to 0.8 g / lb of LBM – sedentary person
0.8 to 1.0 / lb of LBM – mildly active
1.0 to 1.2 / lb of LBM  – bodybuilders, etc
Protein Needs (0.69 to 1.2) _____________ x LBM (step 5) __________ = _______________ grams
Protein calories = 4 x Protein grams __________ = ______ calories
10. Calculate the total fat calories you can consume each day (both fat from body and fat from diet.
TDEE (step 6) _______ minus carbs (step 7) ________ minus protein (step 8) = ____________ fat calories
11. Calculate the calories of fat that you can consume the first day.
Total fat calories (Step 10) ______ minus Calories available from your body (Step 4) ________________ = ___________ calories

## Me as an Example

2. With a tape measure:
Height [71] in
Neck [16] in
Waist [40] in
Hips (if you are a woman) [I am Not a woman] in
3. Plug in your measurements from step 2 into USN BodyFat Calculator.
Lean Body Mass [148] lbs
Body Fat [26] %
Weight _________ lbs times
5. Calculate your max fat loss by multiplying your Body Fat from Step 3 by 31
Body Fat [] lbs x 31 cals/lb = ____________ calories
6. Weight loss per day = number (step 4)  ______ / 3500 = _____
(This number should be a fraction around 0.5 for many people).
LBM = Weight (step 1) _________ minus Body Fat (step 3) _____ = ________ lbs
8. Calculate your TDEE = ___________  calories
9. Your calories from carbs should be less than 20 x 4 = 80 calories.
10. Calculate your protein needs from using one of the constants from KetoGains FAQ page Protein Needs section
0.69 to 0.8 g / lb of LBM – sedentary person
0.8 to 1.0 / lb of LBM – mildly active
1.0 to 1.2 / lb of LBM  – bodybuilders, etc
Protein Needs (0.69 to 1.2) _____________ x LBM (step 5) __________ = _______________ grams
Protein calories = 4 x Protein grams __________ = ______ calories
11. Calculate the total fat calories you can consume each day (both fat from body and fat from diet.
TDEE (step 6) _______ minus carbs (step 7) ________ minus protein (step 8) = ____________ fat calories
12. Calculate the calories of fat that you can consume the first day.
Total fat calories (Step 10) ______ minus Calories available from your body (Step 4) ________________ = ___________ calories

## Do Calories Matter?

The first question is “Do Calories matter in what?”. If the “what” is weight-loss then the question is, “Do Calories matter in Weight-loss?”.

The answer is both yes and no. The standard formula Calories In minus Calories Out has many problems including:

• Doesn’t differentiate between the sources of calories. In this formula 1000 calories of seven layer chocolate cake is the same as 1000 calories of broccoli (although try to eat 1000 calories of broccoli sometime).
• At a finer level, doesn’t differentiate between the macro-nutrient mix of two things. Is a 200 calorie bag of chips really the same as a 200 calorie bag of macadamia nuts? The chips are carbs and fat as are the nuts but the proportions of fats and carbs are completely different between the two.
• Within a particular macro-nutrient it also doesn’t differentiate between types of macro-nutrients or how the body processes them.

# So where/how do calories matter?

Since the subject of this BLOG is largely Ketogenic diets it is a given that the Low Carb (less than 20 grams of net carbs a day) is the baseline. There’s plenty of science that shows this is an effective and safe diet. But what does that leave? There are only three macro-nutrients (and we aren’t counting the fourth which is alcohol) so that only leaves fat and protein.

## Let’s Look at Protein First

Here’s where it gets controversial or fun, depending on your own tolerance for different opinions. You need some amount of protein to maintain your Lean Body Mass. Fasting has been shown to be sparing of lean body mass, but there’s some minimal loss on longer fasts. At one end of the spectrum is Dr Jason Fung who’s patients are often older and present to him with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. He prescribes a limit on protein (How much protein is excessive?):

The average necessary would be 0.6 g/kg/day (around 50 g/day) and LESS if you are trying to lose weight.

The value of 0.6g/kg of body mass translates to 0.27g/lb of body mass. Note Fung’s number is not for Lean Body Mass, but current weight. Let’s round to 0.3 to make the math easier here.

At the far other end are bodybuilders who have much higher macros. But the focus here is ketogenic eating, Here is the KetoGains suggested intake of protein (KetoGain FAQ):

*Sedentary people: 0.69 to 0.8g per lean pound
*Mildly active or doing endurance / strength training: 0.8 to 1.0g per lean pound
* Heavy strength training / bodybuilders / PSMF: 1.0 up to 1.2g per lean pound

So picking the middle number would be 0.9g/lb of LBM. There’s no easy translation between LBM and body weight since it varies greatly person to person. The formula is:

Body weight times (1-fat percentage) = Lean Body Mass (LBM)

For the sake of simplification, let’s assume that the person has 25% fat. Their LBM is 0.75 times their body weight. For a 200 lb person that would be an LBM of 150 lb.

The protein recommendation of Dr. Fung for maintenance is then 200 x 0.3g/lb or 60 grams. The protein recommendation of KetoGains would be 150 x 0.9 = 135 or a bit more than twice that of Dr Fung.

Note the different goals. Dr. Fung’s number is based on the goal of maintenance of LBM and the KetoGains number is based on body recomposition or growth in muscles.

In the end this is a fixed value which should be adhered to – if possible on a daily basis.  And what this means is that the number of calories (4 times the number of grams of protein) is also a fixed number and is specific to your current body weight, etc. If you are a 200 lb male with 30% body fat that translates to 135 grams a day (KetoGains model).

## The Only Thing Left is Fat

And surprisingly, fat is also controversial. But it really shouldn’t be. The standard keto advice is eat until satiety. But for many of us that’s a hard point to discover. We’ve eaten until we are stuffed for so long that we are barely able to do otherwise. And fat becomes what we use to feel really full. And fat is very dense.

The Problem with eating too much fat is that we don’t pull fat stores from our bodies when we overdo fat. That is why most of us stall in our losses. We don’t gain weight if we keep low carb because it’s really the carbs which make us fat not the dietary fat. But we are not losing weight either.

## How Much Fat Should We Eat?

If you are asking this question it’s because the standard “Eat till satiety” isn’t working for you any longer. In the beginning it worked well but the real reason is that your body had a lot of fat stores to pull from. As we go on in this Way of Eating our bodies have less and less reserves of fat to eat.

There’s a constant called the fat oxidation rate which limits our ability to pull fat from our bodies (A limit on the energy transfer rate from the human fat store in hypophagia). That number is 31 calories per lb of fat mass per day. If you have 50 lbs of fat mass you can only pull around 1500 calories a day from that fat mass. On a long fast, if you pull more calories that comes either out of dropping your metabolism or your body’s protein stores. There are no other sources. And usually it is your metabolism which drops. Some of this is made up by the thermogenic effect of food (you are not burning energy to eat food).

So some of us have tried doing reduced calorie diets without concern for our macro-nutrients. We don’t need carbs (we are keto, right) so there’s only two choices when reducing calories. Either we reduce protein or we reduce fat. If we spare the protein by eating enough (see above) then we have to strike the balance at the cost of lowering our fat consumption.

And lowering fat consumption makes a lot of sense. It’s often easy to not put a stick of butter on a pile of broccoli. It tastes just as good if you have been doing keto for a long time and in essence, the fats are just wasted calories. They won’t make you fat (it takes carbs plus fat to make you fat) but they won’t make you thinner either.

The amount of fat we should eat should be set by the maximum rate of loss that we can do through fat oxidation. You can always choose to go slower, but how many people want to do that? A cheat day would consist of over consuming fat which would be a stall and not a weight gain. But you don’t need to cheat.

## The Maths

The Math is described here. In outline it works like this:

• Get some measurements (Weight, simple body tape measurements)
• Determine your assumptions (Base Metabolic Rate, Protein needs)
• Set your goal (Body fat percentage is the sole goal)
• Run the numbers to determine the results (end weight, weight loss time, macros for each day)
• Pick your foods to reach your goals depending on each day’s needs
• Chart your progress as you do it

## The Don’ts

1. Don’t use this information to help your anorexia or some other eating disorder. There’s some ways to help with that like not looking in a mirror but look at a picture of yourself to see what you really look like to others. I did that and I looked fat in the viewfinder but not fat in the picture itself. Same with mirrors.
2. Don’t set unreasonable goals. Don’t go for 5% body fat. There are safe numbers out there for body fat percentages. You are may not be the best judge of what is good for you (particularly if you have a food disorder). Trust those numbers out there and not your own perceptions of whether or not you are fat.
3. Don’t try to cook the numbers. By that I mean don’t try to run at a calorie deficit to get it done sooner.
4. Don’t just run the numbers once and stick to the same pattern for the next three months. At least recalculate the numbers and readjust weekly. The numbers shift quickly on this method. You may be eating almost no fat one day and need to supplement more as you go on.
5. Don’t forget to track all of your macros. It’s not all that hard. You already know how to keep your carbs below 20 but track them anyway. Tracking the macros lets you check against the model.
6. Don’t cut protein to accelerate weight loss. Eat protein in a consistent way. I am choosing to use Protein Powder. May not be the right choice for others. Let’s me isolate protein from the other macros.
7. Don’t cut fat to accelerate weight loss. You will sabotage yourself by lowering your metabolic rate too far.
8. Don’t overdo but if you overdo then make it fat that you overdo not protein or definitely not carbs. Know that too much fat slows weight loss.

## Final Thoughts

The math here can be daunting. But there are calculators for every part of it on the Internet. If you don’t like the calculators you can get measured with BodPod or DEXA to get more precise body fat numbers. More precision probably doesn’t matter in most cases but if you get close to your goals it may matter.

Bottom line is:

• Keep keto for carbs (less than 20 grams a day)
• Eat the proper protein amount
• Eat the amount of fat calories you need to reach your Total Energy Expenditure (minus the calories of fat your body can oxidize)

# The Chart of Hopes and Dreams

Here’s the chart of theoretical progress.

 Day Weight LBM lbs Fat Cals Needed Cals from Body Fat Calories from Food Wt loss Fat(g) Carb(g) Protein(g) Cal(Fat) Cal(carb) Cal(Prot) Exercise Met Rate 0 202.8 156.0 46.8 2230.8 1450.8 780.0 0.4 22.3 20.0 124.8 200.8 80.0 499.2 N 11 1 202.4 156.0 46.4 2428.6 1438.0 990.7 0.4 45.7 20.0 124.8 411.5 80.0 499.2 Y 12 2 202.0 156.0 46.0 2423.7 1425.2 998.5 0.4 46.6 20.0 124.8 419.3 80.0 499.2 Y 12 3 201.6 156.0 45.6 2217.2 1412.6 804.7 0.4 25.1 20.0 124.8 225.5 80.0 499.2 N 11 4 201.2 156.0 45.2 2414.0 1400.1 1013.9 0.4 48.3 20.0 124.8 434.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 5 200.8 156.0 44.8 2409.2 1387.7 1021.5 0.4 49.1 20.0 124.8 442.3 80.0 499.2 Y 12 6 200.4 156.0 44.4 2404.4 1375.4 1029.0 0.4 50.0 20.0 124.8 449.8 80.0 499.2 Y 12 7 200.0 156.0 44.0 2199.7 1363.2 836.5 0.4 28.6 20.0 124.8 257.3 80.0 499.2 N 11 8 199.6 156.0 43.6 2395.0 1351.1 1043.9 0.4 51.6 20.0 124.8 464.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 9 199.2 156.0 43.2 2390.4 1339.2 1051.2 0.4 52.4 20.0 124.8 472.0 80.0 499.2 Y 12 10 198.8 156.0 42.8 2187.0 1327.3 859.7 0.4 31.2 20.0 124.8 280.5 80.0 499.2 N 11 11 198.4 156.0 42.4 2381.2 1315.5 1065.7 0.4 54.1 20.0 124.8 486.5 80.0 499.2 Y 12 12 198.1 156.0 42.1 2376.7 1303.9 1072.8 0.4 54.8 20.0 124.8 493.6 80.0 499.2 Y 12 13 197.7 156.0 41.7 2372.3 1292.3 1079.9 0.4 55.6 20.0 124.8 500.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 14 197.3 156.0 41.3 2170.5 1280.9 889.6 0.4 34.5 20.0 124.8 310.4 80.0 499.2 N 11 15 197.0 156.0 41.0 2363.4 1269.6 1093.9 0.4 57.2 20.0 124.8 514.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 16 196.6 156.0 40.6 2359.1 1258.3 1100.8 0.4 58.0 20.0 124.8 521.6 80.0 499.2 Y 12 17 196.2 156.0 40.2 2158.5 1247.2 911.4 0.4 36.9 20.0 124.8 332.2 80.0 499.2 N 11 18 195.9 156.0 39.9 2350.5 1236.1 1114.4 0.4 59.5 20.0 124.8 535.2 80.0 499.2 Y 12 19 195.5 156.0 39.5 2346.3 1225.2 1121.1 0.4 60.2 20.0 124.8 541.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 20 195.2 156.0 39.2 2342.1 1214.3 1127.7 0.3 60.9 20.0 124.8 548.5 80.0 499.2 Y 12 21 194.8 156.0 38.8 2143.1 1203.6 939.5 0.3 40.0 20.0 124.8 360.3 80.0 499.2 N 11 22 194.5 156.0 38.5 2333.8 1192.9 1140.9 0.3 62.4 20.0 124.8 561.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 23 194.1 156.0 38.1 2329.7 1182.3 1147.3 0.3 63.1 20.0 124.8 568.1 80.0 499.2 Y 12 24 193.8 156.0 37.8 2131.8 1171.9 960.0 0.3 42.3 20.0 124.8 380.8 80.0 499.2 N 11 25 193.5 156.0 37.5 2321.6 1161.5 1160.1 0.3 64.5 20.0 124.8 580.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 26 193.1 156.0 37.1 2317.6 1151.2 1166.4 0.3 65.2 20.0 124.8 587.2 80.0 499.2 Y 12 27 192.8 156.0 36.8 2313.7 1141.0 1172.7 0.3 65.9 20.0 124.8 593.5 80.0 499.2 Y 12 28 192.5 156.0 36.5 2117.3 1130.9 986.4 0.3 45.2 20.0 124.8 407.2 80.0 499.2 N 11 29 192.2 156.0 36.2 2305.9 1120.9 1185.0 0.3 67.3 20.0 124.8 605.8 80.0 499.2 Y 12 30 191.8 156.0 35.8 2302.0 1111.0 1191.1 0.3 68.0 20.0 124.8 611.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 31 191.5 156.0 35.5 2106.7 1101.1 1005.6 0.3 47.4 20.0 124.8 426.4 80.0 499.2 N 11 32 191.2 156.0 35.2 2294.5 1091.4 1203.1 0.3 69.3 20.0 124.8 623.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 33 190.9 156.0 34.9 2290.7 1081.7 1209.0 0.3 70.0 20.0 124.8 629.8 80.0 499.2 Y 12 34 190.6 156.0 34.6 2287.0 1072.1 1214.9 0.3 70.6 20.0 124.8 635.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 35 190.3 156.0 34.3 2093.1 1062.6 1030.4 0.3 50.1 20.0 124.8 451.2 80.0 499.2 N 11 36 190.0 156.0 34.0 2279.7 1053.2 1226.5 0.3 71.9 20.0 124.8 647.3 80.0 499.2 Y 12 37 189.7 156.0 33.7 2276.1 1043.9 1232.2 0.3 72.6 20.0 124.8 653.0 80.0 499.2 Y 12 38 189.4 156.0 33.4 2083.1 1034.6 1048.5 0.3 52.1 20.0 124.8 469.3 80.0 499.2 N 11 39 189.1 156.0 33.1 2269.0 1025.5 1243.5 0.3 73.8 20.0 124.8 664.3 80.0 499.2 Y 12 40 188.8 156.0 32.8 2265.4 1016.4 1249.1 0.3 74.4 20.0 124.8 669.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 41 188.5 156.0 32.5 2262.0 1007.4 1254.6 0.3 75.0 20.0 124.8 675.4 80.0 499.2 Y 12 42 188.2 156.0 32.2 2070.3 998.5 1071.8 0.3 54.7 20.0 124.8 492.6 80.0 499.2 N 11 43 187.9 156.0 31.9 2255.1 989.6 1265.5 0.3 76.3 20.0 124.8 686.3 80.0 499.2 Y 12 44 187.6 156.0 31.6 2251.7 980.9 1270.8 0.3 76.8 20.0 124.8 691.6 80.0 499.2 Y 12 45 187.4 156.0 31.4 2061.0 972.2 1088.8 0.3 56.6 20.0 124.8 509.6 80.0 499.2 N 11 46 187.1 156.0 31.1 2245.0 963.6 1281.4 0.3 78.0 20.0 124.8 702.2 80.0 499.2 Y 12 47 186.8 156.0 30.8 2241.7 955.0 1286.7 0.3 78.6 20.0 124.8 707.5 80.0 499.2 Y 12 48 186.5 156.0 30.5 2238.4 946.6 1291.9 0.3 79.2 20.0 124.8 712.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 49 186.3 156.0 30.3 2048.9 938.2 1110.7 0.3 59.1 20.0 124.8 531.5 80.0 499.2 N 11 50 186.0 156.0 30.0 2231.9 929.9 1302.1 0.3 80.3 20.0 124.8 722.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 51 185.7 156.0 29.7 2228.8 921.6 1307.1 0.3 80.9 20.0 124.8 727.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 52 185.5 156.0 29.5 2040.1 913.5 1126.7 0.3 60.8 20.0 124.8 547.5 80.0 499.2 N 11 53 185.2 156.0 29.2 2222.5 905.4 1317.1 0.3 82.0 20.0 124.8 737.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 54 184.9 156.0 28.9 2219.4 897.4 1322.0 0.3 82.5 20.0 124.8 742.8 80.0 499.2 Y 12 55 184.7 156.0 28.7 2216.3 889.4 1326.9 0.3 83.1 20.0 124.8 747.7 80.0 499.2 Y 12 56 184.4 156.0 28.4 2028.8 881.5 1147.3 0.3 63.1 20.0 124.8 568.1 80.0 499.2 N 11 57 184.2 156.0 28.2 2210.2 873.7 1336.5 0.2 84.1 20.0 124.8 757.3 80.0 499.2 Y 12 58 183.9 156.0 27.9 2207.2 866.0 1341.2 0.2 84.7 20.0 124.8 762.0 80.0 499.2 Y 12 59 183.7 156.0 27.7 2020.6 858.3 1162.2 0.2 64.8 20.0 124.8 583.0 80.0 499.2 N 11 60 183.4 156.0 27.4 2201.3 850.7 1350.6 0.2 85.7 20.0 124.8 771.4 80.0 499.2 Y 12 61 183.2 156.0 27.2 2198.4 843.2 1355.2 0.2 86.2 20.0 124.8 776.0 80.0 499.2 Y 12 62 183.0 156.0 27.0 2195.5 835.7 1359.8 0.2 86.7 20.0 124.8 780.6 80.0 499.2 Y 12 63 182.7 156.0 26.7 2009.9 828.3 1181.6 0.2 66.9 20.0 124.8 602.4 80.0 499.2 N 11 64 182.5 156.0 26.5 2189.8 821.0 1368.8 0.2 87.7 20.0 124.8 789.6 80.0 499.2 Y 12 65 182.2 156.0 26.2 2187.0 813.7 1373.3 0.2 88.2 20.0 124.8 794.1 80.0 499.2 Y 12 66 182.0 156.0 26.0 2002.2 806.5 1195.7 0.2 68.5 20.0 124.8 616.5 80.0 499.2 N 11 67 181.8 156.0 25.8 2181.4 799.3 1382.1 0.2 89.2 20.0 124.8 802.9 80.0 499.2 Y 12 68 181.6 156.0 25.6 2178.7 792.3 1386.4 0.2 89.7 20.0 124.8 807.2 80.0 499.2 Y 12 69 181.3 156.0 25.3 2176.0 785.3 1390.7 0.2 90.2 20.0 124.8 811.5 80.0 499.2 Y 12 70 181.1 156.0 25.1 1992.2 778.3 1213.9 0.2 70.5 20.0 124.8 634.7 80.0 499.2 N 11 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# Source of elements

There is only one thing that changes throughout this methodology – the amount of fat eaten per day. And it goes up dramatically over the time of the diet.

• Day: Incrementing count of days starting at 0
• Weight: Starting from the scale but this is the calculated weight based on best case drops
• LBM: Lean Body Mass. Original Source of Data was the Navy LBM Calculator
• Lbs Fat: Weight minus LBM
• Calories Needed: BMR times the current Weight
• Calories from Body Fat: 31 times the Lbs Fat
• Calories from Food: Calories needed minus Calories from Body Fat
• Wt Loss: Calories from Body Fat divided by 3500 (number of calories in a lb of fat)
• Fat(g): Come back to this at the end, it’s the only variable left
• Carb(g): Fixed at 20 (Max per day)
• Protein(g): 0.8 times LBM – This could be higher or lower depending on LBM preservation/gainz goals
• Cal(Fat): Come back to this at the end.
• Cal(Carb): 4 times Carb(g) = 80 (Max)
• Cal(Protein): 4 times Protein(g)
• Exercise: Select between two different metabolic rates
• Met Rate: Higher rate on exercise day, lower on recovery day

## Calculating the fat per day

All that is left to do is calculate the fat consumption per day.

• Calories from Fat = Total Calories from food minus (Calories from Fat plus Calories from Protein).
• Fat(g) is Calories from Fat divided by 9

# What Will I Track?

When I started keto I tracked everything. That lasted about a week and then I slipped into a pattern of eating.

Currently, I track nothing formally. I do keep carbs below 20 grams (by approximation). After years of having an Insulin pump I got pretty good at estimating my number of grams of carbs. I check myself periodically with new foods to see how close my guess was and I am usually right on.

But to do this experiment right I will track the following

• All meals I eat
• Grams of Carbs
• Grams of Protein
• Grams of Fat
• Do the math for percentage of each over a day
• Do the math for total calories per day
• Scale numbers
• Weight
• BMI
• Body Fat Percentage
• Base Calories to maintain current weight
• Workout times (assuming effort is to exhaustion due to CrossFit)

# Goals

Proposing to do a test on myself with the following goals:

1. Improve HbA1C number (HbA1C is a lab test which shows the Blood Sugar over the previous three months)
July 2017: 5.8 (Low end of Pre-Diabetic level)
Goal: < 5.6 (Below bottom of Pre-Diabetic levels)
2. Lose weight to reach 15% Body Fat (Visualize Body Fat percentages)
3. Barring any injury, be able to do exercise throughout entire test (CrossFit)
Submaximally is OK (<85% of max level)
4. Conserve current LBM (Lose Weight but not muscle)
5. Maintain current metabolic levels.
The same thing as saying not to eat at a net calorie deficit.

# Methodology

The means to this end is a form of the Protein Sparing Modified Fast:

A protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) is a very low calorie diet with some protein, fluids, and vitamin and mineral supplementation.

I don’t plan on doing this using very-low-calories but with an adequate level of calories to not lower my metabolism. The source of calories will come from both body fat and from macro-nutrients consumed.

# The Math

Some math is required. Some of this is constants (values which don’t change) and some of it is variables (numbers which you can play with). Part of the variables relate to weights and measurements. Some of the variables change day to day.

## Constants and Variables

• Current Weight (CW) = what the scale told you that you weigh this morning (using lbs for this discussion). My Current Body Weight at the start of this exercise is 205 lbs. This number should decrease over the course of this test or something is really wrong.
• Lean Body Mass (LBM) = The amount of non-fat in your body. This includes muscle, connective tissues, and everything that is not fat in your body. Without any other value, the US Navy Calculator gives a good estimation of your current LBM. Better values can be found by BodPod or DEXA scans. My LBM is 156 lbs.
• Pounds of fat is your current weight minus your LBM.  For me, I have 49 lbs of fat left. I can’t lose all of that, but that’s what I have left.
• Basal Metabolic Rate – The number of calories you burn (per hour) doing nothing. Here’s one on-line calculator for your basal metabolic rate. I am using 11 calories/lb/day for my exercise rest days and 12 calories/lb/day for my exercise days. Better values of your Resting Metabolic Rate can be found by BodPod or DEXA scans.
• Percent Body Fat – A goal. Use Visualize Body Fat percentages to select your goal number. My own goal is 15% body fat. No point in going any lower.
• Fat oxidation rate – 31 cal/lb/day (SS, Alpert.A limit on the energy transfer rate from the human fat store in hypophagia. J Theor Biol. 233 (1): 1–13). You can only lose 31 calories worth of fat per lb of your body fat weigh in one day. Since I currently have 49 lbs of fat, I can lose 49 times 31 calories of fat per day or 1519 calories from body fat the first day. This number decreases as you lose weight. (Checking the numbers/units, the article states 290 kJ/kg-day, which is 69.26 kCal/kg-day. With 1 lb = 2.2 kg, that’s 31.5 kCal/lb per day).
• Calories per pound of fat is 3500 calories/lb.

# MacroNutrients to Achieve Goals

There are only three macronutrients in this world (other than alcohol). They are fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Selecting the right mix and amount of each of these three macronutrients is what any diet is about.

## Low Carbohydrates

Of the three macronutrients, carbohydrates have the most effect on blood sugar and are the lest important macronutrient for function. It is necessary to stay at a low carbohydrate level to maintain a low blood sugar level.

I plan on sticking with the 20 grams of carbs per day limit. This number will not change over the course of this experiment. The source will continue to be green vegetables.

## Protein for LBM preservation and Gainz

The Protein Sparing Modified Fast provides enough protein to maintain LBM and a little extra protein to cover muscle building. Dr Fung has a lower value for this number than most of the other sources (0.61 g/kg/day). KetoGains has a number of 0.8 g/lb/day of LBM.

For my LBM of 156 lbs, that’s 124.8 grams of protein per day. This number will not change over the course of this experiment since I want to maintain my LBM. I don’t want this number to be higher because it will lead to GNG or lower because it will lead to LBM loss.

## Fat Level

When I have done long fasts, the lack of fat during the fast put me at a metabolic deficit. I could see this was true from my body temperature which was cold. I had enough energy to walk and function but was quickly tired by any exercise.

What gets left over after carbs and fat are determined is the amount of fat. Rather than High Fat or Moderate Fat of the typical LCHF/Keto diet, dietary fat is only used to make up the difference between the fat oxidation rate and the number of calories needed to not drop the base metabolic rate.

On day 1, that is only 17 grams of fat – about 1/2T of butter a day. That is quite a bit lower than I am currently doing but that’s probably why I am not losing weight. If I go over this number it will decrease my daily deficit and I will lose weight slower.

# Intermittent Fasting

In the short term, I plan to do this experiment by continuing to feed one time per day. This is convenient and helps me keep my Insulin levels as long as possible. I may experiment with the timing of this one meal or may split it into a pre and post workout meal.

# Testing the Results

Any good experiment requires some evaluation criteria against the goals. For this experiment I will:

Proposing to do a test on myself with the following goals:

## Goal: Improve HbA1C number

Measurement: Get test done of HbA1C on Jan 1 for  < 5.6. Surrogate will be 90-day average blood sugar of 110 or less.

## Goal: Reach 15% Body Fat

Measurement:  Use Visualize Body Fat percentages to check body fat percentage. Get third party to check from the pictures. Alternately use BodPod or DEXA scan test.

## Goal: Be able to do exercise throughout transition

Measurement: Stick with current CrossFit with minimum average attendance record of 3 days per week. Stretch goal of 4 days per week (only open 5 days per week). Submaximal performance is OK although I would like to be able to complete at least 50% of timed WODs in the allowed times.

## Goal: Maintain current LBM

Measurement: Same as Body Fat % Goal.

## Goal: Maintain current metabolic levels.

Will know if this works if end weight is maintainable.

Best thing is this all could be done by Christmas!

## Does Fat in a Diet Increase Insulin Resistance?

A study answered that question (Dietary Fat and Carbohydrates Differentially Alter Insulin Sensitivity During Caloric Restriction).

The subjects were:

Twenty-two obese subjects (body mass index, 36.5 ± 0.8 kg/m2) were randomized to an High Carbohydrate (>180 g/day) or Low Carbohydrate (<50 g/day) energy-deficit diet. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, muscle biopsy specimens, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to determine insulin action, cellular insulin signaling, and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content before, after 48 hours, and after ∼11 weeks (7% weight loss) of diet therapy.

They found:

Our results refute our original hypothesis that an LC diet will cause insulin resistance because of increased adipose tissue lipolytic rates and excessive free fatty acid release into the bloodstream. In fact, we found that LC intake rapidly caused a greater reduction in IHTG content, improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity, and decrease in endogenous glucose production rate than consumption of an isocaloric low-fat diet.

## Effects of Eating Protein

When you eat protein, your stomach uses its acid and enzymes to break it down into its building blocks, amino acids. These molecules are transported into the bloodstream by special cells that line the small intestine, and are then delivered to various parts of the body. Your small intestine only has so many transporter cells, which limits the amount of amino acids that can be infused into your blood every hour.

The article goes on to say that different proteins sources are absorbed at different rates.

According to one review, whey clocks in at 8 to 10 grams absorbed per hour, casein at ~6.1 g/hr, soy at ~3.9 g/hr, and cooked egg at ~2.9 g/hr.

Here’s a really interesting point that I didn’t know about:

For instance, the presence of protein in the stomach stimulates the production of a hormone that delays “gastric emptying” (the emptying of the food from the stomach). This slows down intestinal contractions and thus how quickly the food moves through the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed. This is one of the ways your body “buys the time” it needs to absorb the protein you eat.

That seems to be the mechanism by which protein gets processed by the body. That’s how the area under the curve for protein is so long.

The article goes on to say that:

Carbohydrates and fats can move through your small intestine and be fully absorbed while the protein is still being worked on.

The page then quoted a study (Protein feeding pattern does not affect protein retention in young women) which indicated that it doesn’t matter if the protein is consumed all at one time (Intermittent Fasting style) or over the course of the entire day.

It was higher during the experimental period, but not significantly different in the women fed the spread or the pulse patterns [59 +/- 12 and 36 +/- 8 mg N/(kg fat-free mass. d) respectively]. No significant effects of the protein feeding pattern were detected on either whole-body protein turnover [5.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.3 g protein/(kg fat-free mass. d) for spread and pulse pattern, respectively] or whole-body protein synthesis and protein breakdown. Thus, in young women, these protein feeding patterns did not have significantly different effects on protein retention.

Interesting…

## Keto Calculator – Macronutrients

How many macronutrients do you need to do LCHF? There’s an on-line Keto Calculator.

It projects your rate of weight loss based on the values you selected. You can even download this data as a CSV (EXCEL) file.

Here’s my daily macronutrient goals (yours will vary):

I have been shooting for a higher percentage from fat due to my Diabetes. I am too good at converting protein into glucose.

## Caloric Restriction vs Intermittent Fasting

A 2011 Meta-Analysis (Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?) looked at the difference between calorie restriction and Intermittent Fasting. The study looked at 18 trials and examined the results across each of them. 11 of the trials were for Caloric Restriction alone and 7 were for Intermittent Fasting.

The study termed both diets as Calorie Restriction because they both result in less net calories. The fast day wasn’t an actual fast, but a caloric restriction to 25% of a normal day. The difference is on the feed day the subjects could eat whatever they wanted to eat.

The conclusion was interesting.

In sum, intermittent CR and daily CR diets appear to be equally as effective in decreasing body weight, fat mass, and potentially, visceral fat mass. However, intermittent restriction regimens may be superior to daily restriction regimens in that they help conserve lean mass at the expense of fat mass. These findings add to the growing body of evidence showing that intermittent CR may be implemented as another viable option for weight loss in overweight and obese populations.

Another great result for Intermittent Fasting!

I know as a dieter which I would prefer. If you told me I had to diet every other day and could eat what I want on the other day and that I would do just as well as if I had dieted every day that doesn’t sound like a hard choice at all.

Another study reached similar conclusions (Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults).

Here’s a third study on Alternate Day Fasting (The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women).