It is well accepted that being too heavy is not healthy and leads to a shortened life expectancy. It is less known that being too thin may not be healthy and may lead to a shortened life expectancy.
Here is a video I made about using a Breathalyzer to measure ketones (whether or not you are in Ketosis).
Interesting study (Efficacy and safety of insulin in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials). The study reviewed:
A systematic literature review (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library) including all randomised clinical trials (RCT) analysing insulin vs. hypoglycaemic drugs or diet/placebo, published between 1950 and 2013, was performed.
Twenty RCTs were included out of the 1632 initially identified studies. 18 599 patients were analysed:
The study looked at:
We included all RCTs reporting effects on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, death by cancer, cardiovascular morbidity, microvascular complications and hypoglycaemia in adults ≥ 18 years with T2D.
The conclusion was:
There is no significant evidence of long term efficacy of insulin on any clinical outcome in T2D. However, there is a trend to clinically harmful adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia and weight gain. The only benefit could be limited to reducing short term hyperglycemia.
Here’s an interesting study from 2003 (Low–Glycemic Index Diets in the Management of Diabetes).
The study looked at:
Literature searches identified 14 studies, comprising 356 subjects, that met strict inclusion criteria. All were randomized crossover or parallel experimental design of 12 days’ to 12 months’ duration (mean 10 weeks) with modification of at least two meals per day. Only 10 studies documented differences in postprandial glycemia on the two types of diet.
The results were:
Low-GI diets reduced HbA1c by 0.43% points (CI 0.72–0.13) over and above that produced by high-GI diets. Taking both HbA1c and fructosamine data together and adjusting for baseline differences, glycated proteins were reduced 7.4% (8.8–6.0) more on the low-GI diet than on the high-GI diet. This result was stable and changed little if the data were unadjusted for baseline levels or excluded studies of short duration. Systematically taking out each study from the meta-analysis did not change the CIs.
Low Glycemic diets provided some advantage in reducing HbA1C values but nowhere near what I (n=1) have seen with LCHF and IF together.
For me, this says that choosing between two foods which are otherwise equal that choosing the lower GI food is a good choice but choosing a low GI diet as a way of losing weight or controlling diabetes isn’t all that effective.
A new article in the JAMA shows the lengths that the sugar industry took to divert attention from the role of sugar in heart disease by making fat the scapegoat (Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research: A Historical Analysis of Internal Industry Documents).
examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study.
This study suggests that the sugar industry sponsored its first CHD research project in 1965 to downplay early warning signals that sucrose consumption was a risk factor in CHD. As of 2016, sugar control policies are being promulgated in international, federal, state, and local venues. Yet CHD risk is inconsistently cited as a health consequence of added sugars consumption. Because CHD is the leading cause of death globally, the health community should ensure that CHD risk is evaluated in future risk assessments of added sugars. Policymaking committees should consider giving less weight to food industry–funded studies, and include mechanistic and animal studies as well as studies appraising the effect of added sugars on multiple CHD biomarkers and disease development.
How many macronutrients do you need to do LCHF? There’s an on-line Keto Calculator.
It projects your rate of weight loss based on the values you selected. You can even download this data as a CSV (EXCEL) file.
Here’s my daily macronutrient goals (yours will vary):
I have been shooting for a higher percentage from fat due to my Diabetes. I am too good at converting protein into glucose.
2 Keto Dudes Podcasts. Entertaining Guys. A couple episodes have salty language.
This chart is highly contested, but this represents the understanding that many (perhaps most) healthcare providers have of diabetic blood sugar control. Unfortunately, that means you could have numbers into the 200’s and they would consider that “good” control.
Most Low Carb folks would like to be in the mid 4s.